A new study by the Center for Automotive Research (CAR) reveals unfavorable prospects as to the rate of widespread adoption of electric and self-driving cars.

According to the study, presented on Wednesday to a group of automotive journalists, CAR predicts Level 4 and Level 5 autonomy vehicles will comprise only four percent of all new cars by 2030, with a 51-percent rise in total new vehicle sales by 2040.

Regarding battery electrics and fuel cell vehicles, the study forecasts an 8 percent market share by 2030.

Additionally, the study foresees a drop in investment dollars as a result of increased exposure to a softer market and hits to profitability.

“While the technology to electrify and automate vehicles will take decades to proliferate, automakers and suppliers must invest now to have a stake in the future of the transformed automotive industry,” said Carla Bailo, CEO of CAR. “Will the auto industry continue to spend at the current pace through a downturn in the business cycle? If recent history is any guide, they will not — at least not at the current speed and scale of investment.”

Lastly, the study shows a disparity between American and Chinese attitudes towards electrified vehicles over gas engines, with 18 percent of Americans polled preferring electrification, versus 56 percent of Chinese respondents.

Similarly, a good percentage of Americans have yet to warm up to ride-hailing services as a better option over personal ownership and public transportation options.

Based in Ann Arbor, Mich., the Center for Automotive Research is a non-profit organization that researches automotive industry hot topics, serving to advise automakers and policymakers through various forecasts and consumer forums. 60 percent of its funding sources comes from federal, state, and local governments, in addition to corporate partners, with the remainder coming from conferences and contributions.