Hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) are a form of all-electric hybrid merging a fuel cell stack with a traction battery. They emit nothing but water and drive like battery electric vehicles. FCVs are for now confined to markets in California and infrastructure is scarce. Manufacturers are betting by the 2020s and beyond they will catch up, but battery electric cars can be recharged anywhere now, while their costs are also coming down. The two approaches also compete for mind share, and battery electrics are more popular, though with hope of sustainable hydrogen in the future, FCVs have strong advocates.

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