A new study shows that even electricity generated from fossil fuels powers EVs that are cleaner than diesel cars.

The new study is from the European Federation for Transport and Environment, known as Transport and Environment, and was conducted by VUB university in Brussels, Belgium. Transport and Environment is a group of organizations working to promote transportation policy based on environmentally stable development.

The study looked at diesel car emissions compared with emissions from electric vehicles, over the lifecycle of the car. That includes generating the power, building the car, and even manufacturing the battery. It’s intended to give a better picture of how the two types of vehicles perform when it comes to CO2.

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Since the various countries in the European Union all generate electricity differently, the study looked at the best, the worst, and the average. The study started with Poland, which generates only around 12 percent of its power from renewable resources, with the remainder from fossil fuels. At the other end of the carbon spectrum was Sweden, which gets 83 percent of its electricity from nuclear or hydro-electric sources.

In the study, the diesel car emitted the equivalent of 206.1 grams of CO2 per kilometre. An electric car charging in Poland emitted 25 percent less carbon dioxide per km. And that includes the CO2 from building both vehicles and the EV’s battery.

Charge that car in Sweden, and the results are even lower carbon emissions. An electric car charged in that country has emissions that are 85 percent lower than the diesel. The equivalent of just 33.1 g/km.

“Today an electric vehicle driving on Polish electricity – the most carbon intensive in the EU – still has a lower impact on the climate than a new diesel car,” said Yoann Le Petit, clean vehicles officer for Transport and Environment.

Further research from Transport and Environment showed that a lack of critical metals needed for batteries, like cobalt and lithium, won’t hold back the transition to electric vehicles. But the group did say that extraction of the metals should be held to a high standard to deal with environmental and social impacts of mining.