Toyota Will Offer Plug-in Hybrid by 2010

Plug-in Prius Prototype

Toyota puts its Plug-in Prius through testing, as shown in a video issued by the company.

The national coming-out party for the Toyota Prius was a television commercial during the 2005 Super Bowl. The narrator bragged, “Low emissions, high mileage, and you never plug it in.” In those early days of hybrids, Toyota marketers felt compelled to portray charging up your car via the electric grid as an evil to be avoided.

Three years later, Toyota announced that it would build its first plug-in hybrid by 2010. Katsuaki Watanabe, president of Toyota, made the announcement at the 2008 Detroit Auto Show. The announcement represents a change of direction on plug-in hybrids for Toyota—and a victory for tech-savvy hybrid drivers who have been asking, cajoling, even begging carmakers for the ability to recharge bigger batteries via the grid. Toyota’s answer up until now essentially has been, “No thank you. Our Prius is selling like hotcakes.”

Just when Toyota thought it might rest on its 45-mpg laurels, along came someone hotter than hotcakes—a small non-profit called CalCars, which demonstrated that plug-in capability could boost fuel efficiency to 100 miles per gallon. The outfit of envirogeeks waged a public relations war by hacking Priuses, ripping out OEM control systems, adding extra hybrid batteries, thus proving the benefits and feasibility of plug-in hybrids.

A Different Kettle of Volts

Environmentalists, politicians, and several car companies took notice. Toyota seemed unimpressed. “We’re immensely gratified that some enthusiasts…are, on a vehicle-by-vehicle basis, converting Toyota hybrids to plug-in technology,” recently wrote Toyota spokesman Irv Miller. “But doing one-by-one conversions is a different kettle of volts from making this technology viable for the sale of hundreds of thousands of cars, at an affordable price, with reasonable reliability expectations.”

But the genie had bolted from the bottle. The tide of public demand for grid-powered vehicles in the next generation of hybrids eroded Toyota’s resistance. In July 2007, the company announced that it “developed a plug-in hybrid vehicle and became the first manufacturer to have such a vehicle certified for use on public roads in Japan,” clearing the path for testing plug-in hybrid prototypes.

Five months later, Toyota showed off plug-in Prius prototypes to journalists and university researchers. had a chance to ride in one Dec. 2-3 at EVS23, the international electric vehicle symposium in Anaheim, Calif. To make the prototype, Toyota threw away the spare tire and filled the void with additional packs of hybrid nickel-metal hydride batteries.

Driving the plug-in Prius prototype in Anaheim was completely uneventful. The all-electric stealth mode is familiar to any Prius driver. There’s just a whole lot more stealth behind the wheel of the grid-ready Prius. Unlike the conventional Prius, which has a single fuel-filler door, the plug-in version has a second door on the opposite side that opens to reveal an outlet for electric charging from an ordinary three-prong cord. The Plug-in Prius also has an “EV” button on the dash, to allow the driver to maintain the vehicle in all-electric mode as long as sufficient energy remains in the batteries.

The Race to 2010

In his speech at the 2008 Detroit Auto Show, Watanabe said Toyota would develop a fleet of plug-in hybrids to run on more powerful lithium-ion batteries, rather than using the current nickel-metal hydride battery technology. This decision will give the company greater opportunity to extend the electric range of its hybrids, beyond the seven miles achievable by its current plug-in Prius prototype. More importantly, Watanabe said that Toyota would make its plug-in hybrid available to commercial customers by 2010—roughly the same timeline provided by General Motors for introduction of its Chevrolet Volt and Saturn Vue plug-in hybrids.

Before the announcement, Toyota officials had refused to give a production timeline for a plug-in hybrid. Toyota’s North American sales chief, Jim Lentz, had told Reuters that Toyota was willing to be beaten to market for a plug-in vehicle if that meant building a better vehicle. "While we’d love to be first, we’re determined to be best." By establishing 2010 as the release date for its first plug-in hybrid, Toyota has apparently grown more interested in bragging rights for delivering the world’s first production-level plug-in hybrid. The race is on.


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  • dada10d

    how much will this new car cost

  • John Graber

    Finally a car company that has listened,responded and acted on consumer wishes. Bravo Toyota! Maybe some day other car companies will follow your lead. Being green and developing vehicles healthy to the planet can be profitable. For as long as I drive, Toyota will remain the logo on my hood.

  • CardInAustin

    But….where are the commercials?? I thought that car companies usually spent millions of dollars on multiple commericals 3 years before such vehicles hit the road! (Please note the sarcasm)

  • ex-EV1 driver

    Did you forget to mention that Toyota’s PHEV only has an all-electric range of only 7 miles? What other performance limitations does it have? Can you drive faster than 30 mph in all-electric mode?
    This sounds like Toyota is trying to milk the market by providing a hybrid that is only a little better than the Prius but really is minimal when compared with what hybrid technology or PHEV technology can bring our planet.

  • American Consumer

    This Toyota President acts like Hitler and looks like him to be frank.

    I will wait for the GM volt to never get a Toyota.

    He wants to take over the world.

    Luckily maybe people aren’t that dumb when they realize Toyota lies to make sales.

    No people you bought a prius that uses basically the same about of gas as a ford focus or Honda civic. In part with the environmental impact of building a new car and the impact of giving us money to a foreign company you caused more damage than you saved.

    It would have been better spending 28 k on a solar system for your house and next time buy it from an American startup in CA.


  • Boom Boom

    I’ll be curious to see who actually gets a PHEV on the market first, how much it costs, and how well it works. GM seems to be pushing hard towards the PHEV, but is thus far all vaporware. Toyota has always made a worthwhile vehicle on their first shot (i.e. 1st gen Prius was solid), but on paper the PHEV prius isn’t as good as a Volt.
    And Greg, get a clue man.

  • WTF??

    Nice little rant Greg – not sure what it is all about. Are you saying that the CEO is Hitler and trying to take over the world? Also how does a prius use the same amount of gas as a ford focus? FF = 35 Hwy 24 city …. Prius = 45 hwy / 48 city ….. NOT EVEN CLOSE and the civics sit at 39/26 better than the focus….

    Not sure what your point is but as an owner of a toyota camry hybrid I can say I routinely get better than advertised mileage from the vehicle (got 48 mpg with it on a long trip recently) ….

    Not sure what your point or problem is….

  • CLD


    If I could completely decipher your grammar, I might be better able to respond to you.

    Are you saying that a Prius uses the same amount of gasoline as a Focus? As someone who has owned both cars, all I can say is dude, you don’t know what you’re talking about. I’m getting about twice the fuel economy with my Prius that I did with my Focus. And if your somehow alluding to that questionable CNW Marketing Research report that claimed that a Prius does more environmental harm that a Hummer, I suggest you actually read the report. The Prius build costs included the environmental impact of the R & D work that went into manufacturing a new technology from scratch. The Hummer got a pass on that front since it’s based on old technology that was developed decades ago. Plus, the Hummer was arbitrarily lifed at nearly three times the number of miles of a Prius. When pressed, CNW didn’t even seem to understand why they calculated it that way.

    I don’t have a problem with buying American. I will definitely look at the Volt when it comes out. But don’t accuse me of doing more harm to America that good. Where was the GM hybrid four years ago when I was shopping for one? If it weren’t for the fact that people bought more Prius’ last year that Ford Explorers, would GM even be making the Volt? You can hardly accuse us of being anti-American for wanting to wean our country off of its appetite for over-consumption. I dare you to call Admiral Jim Woolsey anti-American.

    And as far as Toyota wanting to take over the world, what corporation isn’t trying to take over the world? We call this capitalism. Pop open “Wealth of Nations” sometime and have a good read.

    And Greg, I will take your suggestion and save for the $28K solar array. That will help off-set some of the 100% wind-generated electricity I already receive from Green Mountain so that someone else can benefit from renewable energy.

  • Jon

    American Consumer Greg isn’t worth the time, CLD already showed that, but goodness people like him are annoying. Back on topic…

    Has anyone heard definitively if this new PHEV will be a Prius or might it be a a new model? The quotes in this piece don’t say specifically the vehicle would be a Prius, just that the proof of concept prototypes currently are.

  • Jerry

    As I was scrolling down I was preparing to respond to gregs statement-
    I think everyone has spoken on it!!

  • Ray

    Will plug-in Prius buyers pay the real cost of the lithium ion battery pack or will Toyota offset a majority of these costs to add to it’s eco-reputation?

    CalCars solution cost $12k – $15k. What will the Toyota solution cost? Will consumers shoulder the true burden?

  • get real

    Greg, it is obvious that you are being paid by one of the publicity firms hired by the big three. The big three’s arrogance and desire to support the oil companies has resulted in the big three’s collapse. I was once a firm supporter of Ford. After the dismal reliability of my 99′ Lincoln, I bought a Camry Hybrid. If this company got off foreign oil, then the people who hate us in the middle east would not have as much money. I applaud Toyota’s efforts. GM spend more money on airing commercials for fuel efficient vehicles that they won’t produce (who killed the electric car) than some of the cutting edge Companies like Tesla has in its whole budget. I look forward to the next generation Toyota Prius and hope to be able to buy a PHEV soon.

  • AP

    I agree with a couple of your points, but unless you own Toyota stock, what’s with the attitude? Other companies (some of them American) making hybrids don’t count? Toyota bas broken ground with hybrids, but has used profits from (don’t tell anyone) full-size trucks and SUV’s to fund them. By the way, their trucks make GM’s and Ford’s look like gas-sippers – and Toyota is proud of it. I’m surprised they don’t put a different logo on their trucks so they can keep it a secret. I guess if everyone is stupid enough to fall for their hypocritical positions, they don’t need to!

    BTW, who was the only manufacturer who made a serious effort at meeting California’s idiotic electric vehicle mandate? GM. Toyota didn’t need to kill theirs, because they didn’t bother to make a special electric vehicle in the first place.

  • American Consumer

    I can say one thing about this site. Its a huge Toyota Advert.

    I do not work for the BIG 3 but I am a concerned American Consumer. I am actually an engineer and own my own American Engineering Business. We have had many people from around the world trying to steal our designs. Thats why I support American Engineering and American Computer Science.

    Why is Toyota always on the the top of this site.

    When GM makes better Hybrids?

    2 Mode Hybrids are superior to one mode but no GM products.

    Tell me who works for who here?

  • Frederic

    Hey there American Consumer,

    If you look at the home page carefully, you’ll notice this article here is “news” i.e. it’s news to the industry, and thus is featured. If there was breaking news about the Chevy Volt, it’d be there too.

    Looking elsewhere on the page, there’s some information about the Saturn Vue and the Ford Escape. If you look in SUVs/Mini-vans and Trucks (under the “Cars”) tab, you’ll find primarily American manufacturers. To give you a deserved point, though, the American company Aptera (with it’s typ-1) isn’t listed. They don’t have a car out yet, and maybe that’s the reason. But they plan to. Just like the Tesla Roadster (another American company which hasn’t produced/made available a production model).

    What proof/documentation do you have that GM makes better hybrids? What, in your consideration, makes a “better” hybrid vehicle? This “two-mode” engineering you speak of – are any of these vehicles currently in production? Are there dedicated assembly lines available for this product, or any independent testing to verify that it’s been produced and in a testable concept car? If so, could you provide the source information?

    As far as stealing designs, yep – industrial espionage happens all over the world, to all sorts of companies (not just American). Are you certain that American-owned businesses do not do this? *All* American businesses? If so, how are you sure?

    Also, if you’re “Greg” above (which is possible – the grammar is fairly close), why did you chose to use a different name?

  • Charles

    The two cars I drive most are a 2004 Focus wagon (PZEV, 5 speed manual) and a 2006 Prius. The Prius gets 50% better MPGs (45 vs 30). The Focus cost about $14,500, the Prius $26,500. If both cars last about 150,000 miles, the Prius will never pay for the difference (at least I hope not, gas would have to average $7.20 for it to be even). The Prius will save about 1,700 gallons of gas. Not too bad. The Prius has more passenger room, but less cargo space. The ride is about the same. I like the way the Focus handles better. The leather interior of the Prius is much nicer then the Focus. Both cars have their place and the world would be much better off if the non-hybrid drivers would drive cars like the Focus.

  • Rick

    If we are going to be driving electric cars we had better start building a lot of nuclear, wind and solar. I don’t think there is enough coal and natural gas out there to burn to create the electricity millions of vehicles.

  • rocknerd

    There’s plenty of coal to power cars for a long time. That’s the problem. Here in PA, ~40% of my electricity comes from coal. For me, a PHEV would be a step sideways at best.

  • John

    Hey Greg,

    See you on the front lines of world war three. I’ll be watching for you to run you over in my Toyota Hybrid Tank!!!

  • joel rdmann

    Whould the hybrid car will lose power in the winter? For the plug-in-hybrid.

  • Joel redmann

    is ethanol good for our climate?,
    Will it be good to find better gasoline for our cars?, Am doing a report on hybrids about the good things of them and the bad things. I need your help.

  • Rick

    Ethanol from corn seems to be a losing proposition. Studies vary, but it appears that it takes too much energy from natural gas and oil relative to the energy in the ethanol you get out. I believe ethanol from sugar cane as done in Brazil is practical. Cellulosic ethanol, which potentially would come from switchgrass, garbage, corn husks, etc. has some promise but is not commericially viable at this time. I think burning ethanol is OK for the climate – growing the crops uses C02 and creates Oxygen which negates the CO2 that is created when you ultimately burn it.

  • Rick

    I agree that substituting coal for gasoline doesn’t buy us much. However, according to the, there is a lot less coal than people think. They report that not only is the world close to peaking in oil and natural gas production, but coal production peaking won’t be that far behind.

  • American Consumer

    A famous person once said the only thing Green about Toyota is American Money going to Japan.

  • monish

    how much this car cost?is it really expensive?

  • MJ

    rocknerd- Here is the difference. Coal is mined by people and companies in PA and WV.

    The money from Oil goes to Terrorist and Muslims.

    Hardley a step sideways.

    Yes it’s that simple.

  • Rick

    I don’t think the terrorist Christians in the US buy very much oil from the Middle East. Our to biggest suppliers are Canada and Mexico if I’m not mistaken.

  • Nozferatu

    It frightens me to think you are an engineer. Your comments are pathetic.

    When GM..yes GM…that POS company that has made POS products and environmentally disastrous turds on 4 wheels for the dumb American public…yes that GM…finally makes a car in 5 years that can compete with TODAY’S PRIUS, then you MAY have some room to talk…but oh I forgot…when that happens, Toyota will have already be working on their 4TH GENERATION HYBRID.

    Get a clue. We don’t need to advertise about Toyota..the proof is in the pudding…Toyota is wiping it’s ass with GM’s face….as it rightly should do so.

  • keeping it real

    Hey American Consumer – i’ll bet when you woke up this morning, you had coffee from brazil, using powdered creamer from europe, tied the laces to shoes made in korea, got in your car that is fueled by gas from the middle east, canada or elsewhere. Did it dawn on you that many Toyotas are built in the US, by American workers, feeding American families? I’m just as patriotic as the next person, but if you think you’re all American, perhaps you should consider the boarding point of the boat your ancestors boarded to get here. Maybe you’ll be a bit more open minded then.

  • T klein

    keeping it real……..

    ASSEMBLED in the US is very different than MADE in the US, ALL TOYOTA’s are made in Japan, some models are assembled here with American Workers. But every time anyone buys ANYTHING made somewhere that we run a trade imbalance with, a little piece of America’s overall wealth goes with it. That’s why I feel torn over buying American, we SHOULD be building the best cars in the world and were NOT.

  • keeping it real

    T klein – i appreciate and agree completely with your points. the point i tried to make, and perhaps i didn’t do so well, is that American Consumer should accept the fact we are in a global economy.

  • crocodile

    I hope with 2010 we will be able to cut the power of some of republicans and greedy OPEC. This will be a major victory.

  • sean

    Dear all,
    Pls read.


    FOR THE RECORD: How Many Hybrids Will We Sell, When Will We Sell Them and in Which Models?
    Posted: 18 Jan 2008 02:35 PM CST
    We’re responding today to a couple of stories, including one of our own, that are a little misleading.
    The first of the stories to which I’m referring reported that Toyota has promised to sell a million hybrid vehicles per year by 2010.

    The stories that contain this information refer to a presentation by Katsuaki Watanabe, president of Toyota Motor Corp., at the North American International Auto Show in Detroit on Jan. 13. But they’re not exactly correct.

    What Mr. Watanabe said, when he was commenting on a pair of new hybrids he said would appear next year, was this: “Our long-stated goal is to begin selling a million hybrids per year sometime during the 2010s.”

    He was saying that sometime in the coming decade, we anticipate selling a million hybrids a year, not that we anticipate doing so in 2010 or before. As you can see, what’s been reported and what Mr. Watanabe said are two different things.

    How easy is it to make this kind of mistake? It’s very easy indeed. In fact, to our very great dismay, Your Faithful Servants here at Open Road made the same mistake. As you will have seen if you’re keeping track, we’ve gone back into our own Watanabe announcement post and corrected it.

    While we’re at it, there’s another clarification that needs to be made. It involves whether, and when, every Toyota model will be available as a hybrid.

    The Toyota vision is, and always has been, that every one of our model lines eventually will offer Hybrid Synergy Drive as an option. Mr. Watanabe mentioned that during his remarks at the North American International Auto Show in Detroit last week. In doing so, he was echoing the remarks, and the vision, of Fujio Cho, his predecessor.

    We’ve seen stories recently suggesting that we aim to meet that goal by 2010, or by 2012. But that’s never been our position or our timetable.

    Our target for offering Hybrid Synergy Drive in every model line is, and always has been, the 2010s. We’re talking the ’10s decade – in other words, by 2020 at the latest. This is what we’ve always said, and what we’re still saying.

    We feel compelled to clarify these points because misinformation, no matter how honestly and unintentionally it is presented, can have an awfully long shelf-life. And misinformation benefits nobody.

    ~Contributed by Jon F. Thompson, Corporate Communications

  • Sean Adams

    I already have a prius will toyota design their new parts to be installed into my car. True we can get the calcar upgrade but we will wait until the car is out of warranty long before we make any warranty busting decisions. We live in the Baton Rouge area and we do mostly urban driving with daily commutes under 20 miles we would benefit from a plugin.
    We just got our new prius in May 07, mpg is dependent upon who is driving wife = 40mpg. I get 45mpg city about 50 oh the hwy.
    Since I am a professional driver and have learned and use the SMITH system of driving I can get better results when driving due to this low impact/common sense style of driving.
    My dream is to have a car that is a plug in with solar cells on the roof to charge the car when it is parked in the sun. If we had that we could have a car that is almost emission free.

  • Sean A.

    I tried to be a consumer of American cars we each had new Saturn Ion’s and both cars developed problems while still under warranty we lost our ass because we had to switch car brands mid stream because of them being unreliable. The cars would just quit running with out warning and had to be towed we could have been killed if this had occurred on an interstate.
    Buying American is a great slogan but in my case it turned out to be a poor investment my 04 Saturn was completely paid off 3 years early less than 25k miles on it. I had planned to keep it but it began to have these computer issues and the fourth time I had it towed I said never again and went to Toyota and traded it on a scion and aside from the monetary loss I am satisfied the scion XB is reliable and economical. Two weeks later we traded my wife’s 06 Ion on a Toyota prius.
    The reason people have bought foreign cars is varied but for me I want reliability.
    We tried to get along with used cars but around here we have to screw the mechanics into the ground when they die because they are so crocked. We but new because we were forced to.
    I don’t have the time or money to cull through the American automakers products.

  • Ron Pallack

    The electrc plug in HAS ALREADY BEEN INVENTED AND DESTROYED, KILLED…it was the EV1 by General Motors. Rent the movie “Who Killed the Electric Car” at Netflix if you can stand being angry and sick. Here are the details of this wonderful car that TOYOTA had a hand in killing.

    Driving the EV1 was unlike driving any other car. No key. No maintenance (except periodically rotating the tires and a coolant change at 100,000 miles). No visits to the gas station. No lag between pressing the pedal and getting a response from the engine. Jackrabbit starts — 0 to 30 in 3 seconds, and the prototype’s top speed was 183 mph.

    Production cars were limited to a top speed of 80 mph.The second generation GM EV1 purpose-built electric vehicle had software upgrades, refined ride and handling, improvements in fit and finish, and new plush upholstery, with two battery technologies: An advanced, high-capacity lead acid, and nickel metal hydride.

    Propulsion…The Gen II was powered by a 137 horsepower, 3-phase AC induction motor and used a single speed dual reduction gear set with a ratio of 10.946:1. The Gen II propulsion system had an improved drive unit, battery pack, power electronics, 6.6 kW charger, and heating and thermal control module.

    Batteries…26 valve-regulated high-capacity lead-acid (PbA) batteries were standard for the EV1 battery pack. These advanced batteries were an improvement over the pack available with the first generation EV1 and offered greater range and longer life and a nickel-metal hydride (NiMH) battery pack. This technology nearly doubled the range over the first generation battery and offered improved battery life as well.

    Range…The EV1 with the high-capacity lead-acid pack had an estimated real world driving range of 55 to 95 miles, depending on terrain, driving habits and temperature. …The range with the NiMH pack was even greater. Again, depending on terrain, driving habits, temperature and humidity, estimated real world driving range varied from 75 to 130 miles.

    Charging…The EV1 could be charged safely in all weather conditions with inductive charging. Using a 220-volt charger, charging from 0 to 100% for the new lead-acid pack took up to 5.5 to 6 hours. Charging for the nickel-metal hydride pack, which stored more energy, was 6 to 8 hours.

    Blended Re-generative Braking…Braking was accomplished by using a blended combination of front hydraulic disk, and rear electrically-applied drum brakes and the electric propulsion motor. During braking, the electric motor generated electricity (re-generative) which was then used to partially recharge the battery pack.

    Aluminum Structure…The structure weighed 290 pounds and was less than 10% of the total vehicle weight. The 162 pieces were bonded together into a unit using aerospace adhesive, spot welds and rivets.

    Composite Body Panels…The exterior body panels were dent and corrosion resistant. They were made out of composites and were created using two forming processes known as Sheet Molding Compound (SMC) and Reinforced Reaction Injection Molding (RRIM).

    Aerodynamics…The EV1 was the most aerodynamic production vehicle. It had a 0.19 drag coefficient. It was shaped like a tear drop when viewed from above. In fact, the rear wheels were 9 inches closer together than the front wheels, which allowed the tear drop shape. The EV1 was the world’s most energy-efficient vehicle platform.

    Specifications…The EV1 had an electronically-regulated top speed of 80 miles per hour. It came with traction control, cruise control, anti-lock brakes, airbags, power windows, power door locks and power outside mirrors, AM/FM CD/cassette, tire inflation monitor system and numerous other features.


    What will it cost on your electricity bill to charge this car? I don’t spend a lot of gas already, if this increases my electricty bill by more thatn $50, then it’s a wash. I have a HCH right now.

  • Floyd Burton

    I sense a bit of prejudice toward the Japaneese people. We are driving our 4th Toyota Prius and have never been happier with these cars. We trade car’s every 2 to 3 years not because they are worn out but because we like new cars.

    We always average between 47 and 52 MPG in and around town and on long trips. We always drive with the AC on also. I don’t think the Ford Focus or Honda civic could do that and if you have driven a Prius, it is a much easier car to enter and exit and has the interior room of a mid size car.

    We will be ordering a new 2009 Prius this April and trading our 2006 model in, the 2006 will have around 36,000 miles on it.

  • Brian Curnow

    Well so far – so well and good. It seems Manufacturers are finally waking up to what we want at long last – Toyota with the Prius Plug-in concept and the Chevrolet Volt and Saturn Vue plug-in hybrids being early moves in that right direction.

    But don’t ignore what Volvo are up to with their Plug-in Concept announced at the Frankfurt Motor Show which looks the most promising of the lot from this side of the pond.

    The reasons being idendepent Electric Motors on all four wheels therefore no wasteful Transmission losses, regenerative braking, a small onboard omnifuel motor to recharge the batteries when away from mains power. It’s a simple and therefore totally workable solution offering unlimited distance for minimal operating cost – Volvo are suggesting just 2 cents per mile !

    This could be the right way forward, and it seems to us to make a lot of sense from this vantage point.

  • Big Red

    My wife routinely gets 58-60 in her Prius in combined driving without trying to hard and I get mid 50s with a less light touch on the gas. Battery technology will only get better and this is a direction we should go so long as the economies of producing electricity remain reasonably cheap and we move away from the environmental issues of coal. The environemntal issues of batteries will get better as well and fuel cells loom on the horizon. Wind, solar, tidal and even new nuclear Thorium reactors all hold much promise. The national or corporate slights of some are interesting in this day when most Americans who can invest in their futures, do, which for many of us means Toyota stock or other multinational corporations with good producsts and management. It is a world economy no matter how national pride may factor in.

  • Anonymous

    Well said! Wake up America!

  • R Walker

    You’re an idiot